Condusiv Technologies Blog

Condusiv Technologies Blog

Blogging @Condusiv

The Condusiv blog shares insight into the issues surrounding system and application performance—and how I/O optimization software is breaking new ground in solving those issues.

FAL Remediation and Improved Performance for MEDITECH

by Gary Quan 28. November 2016 12:11

When someone mentions heavy fragmentation on a Windows NTFS Volume, the first thing that usually comes to mind is performance degradation. While performance degradation is certainly bad, what’s worse is application failure when the application gets this error.


Windows Error - "The requested operation could not be completed due to a file system limitation“


That is exactly what happens in severely fragmented environments. These are show-stoppers that can stop a business in its tracks until the problem is remediated. We have had users report this issue to us on SQL databases, Exchange server databases, and cases involving MEDITECH EMR systems.

Some refer to this problem as the “FAL Size Issue” and here is why. In the Windows NTFS file system, as files grow in size and complexity (i.e., more and more fragmented data), they can be assigned additional metadata structures. One of these metadata structures is called the File Attribute List (FAL). The FAL structure can point to different types of file attributes, such as security attributes or standard information such as creation and modification dates and, most importantly, the actual data contained within the file. In the extremely fragmented file case, the FAL will keep track of where all the fragmented data is for the file. The FAL actually contains pointers indicating the location of the file data (fragments) on the volume. As more fragments accumulate in a file, more pointers to the fragmented data are required, which in turn increases the size of the FAL. Herein lies the problem: the FAL size has an upper limitation size of 256KB. When that limit is reached, no more pointers can be added, which means NO more data can be added to the data file. And, if it is a folder file, NO more files can be added under that folder file.

If a FAL reaches the size limitation, the only resolution was to bring the volume offline, which can mean bringing the system down, then copying the file to a different location (a different volume is recommended), deleting or renaming the original file, making sure there is sufficient contiguous free space on the original volume, rebooting the system to reset the free space cache, then copying the file back. This is not a quick cycle, and if that file is large in size, this process can take hours to complete, which means the system will remain offline for hours while attempting to resolve.

You would think that the logical solution would be – why not just defragment those files? The problem is that traditional defragmentation utilities can cause the FAL size to grow. While it can decrease the number of pointers, it will not decrease the FAL size. In fact, due to limitations within the file system, traditional methods of defragmenting files cause the FAL size to grow even larger, making the problem worse even though you are attempting to remediate it. This is true with all other defragmenters, including the built-in defragmenter that comes Windows. So what can be done about it?


The Solution

Condusiv Technologies has introduced a new technology to address this FAL size issue that is unique only to the latest version of V-locity®  for virtual servers and Diskeeper® for physical servers. This new technology called MediWrite™ contains features to help suppress this issue from occurring in the first place, give sufficient warning if it is or has occurred, plus tools to quickly and efficiently reduce the FAL size. It includes the following:

Unique FAL handling: As indicated above, traditional methods of defragmentation can cause the FAL size to grow even further. MediWrite will detect when files are having FAL size issues and will use a proprietary method of defragmentation that keeps the FAL from growing in size. An industry first!

Unique FAL growth prevention: Along with MediWrite, V-locity and Diskeeper contain another very important, patented technology called IntelliWrite® which automatically prevents new fragmentation from occurring. By preventing fragmentation from occurring, IntelliWrite minimizes any further FAL size growth issues.

Unique Offline FAL Consolidation tools: The above technologies help stop the FAL size from growing any larger, but due to File System restrictions, it cannot shrink or reduce the FAL size online. To do this, Condusiv developed proprietary offline tools that will reduce the FAL-IN-USE size in minutes.  This is extremely helpful for companies that already have a file FAL size issue before installing our software. With these tools, the user can reduce the FAL-IN-USE size back down to 100kb, 50kb, or smaller and feel completely safe from the maximum FAL size limits. The reduction process itself takes less than 5 minutes. This means that the system will only need to be taken offline for minutes which is much better than all the hours needed with the current Windows copy method.

FAL size Alerts: MediWrite will dynamically scan the volumes for any FAL sizes that have reached a certain limit (the default is a conservative 50% of the maximum size) and will create an Alert indicating this has occurred. The Alert will also be recorded in the Windows Event log, plus the user has the option to get notified by email when this occurrence happens.


For more information, see our MEDITECH Solution Brief





Diskeeper | Disruption, Application Performance, IOPS | General | IntelliMemory | IntelliWrite | MEDITECH | V-Locity

Everything You Need to Know about SSDs and Fragmentation in 5 Minutes

by Howard Butler 17. November 2016 05:42

When reading articles, blogs, and forums posted by well-respected (or at least well intentioned people) on the subject of fragmentation and SSDs, many make statements about how (1) SSDs don’t fragment, or (2) there’s no moving parts, so no problem, or (3) an SSD is so fast, why bother? We all know and agree SSDs shouldn’t be “defragmented” since that shortens lifespan, so is there a problem after all?

The truth of the matter is that applications running on Windows do not talk directly to the storage device.  Data is referenced as an abstracted layer of logical clusters rather than physical track/sectors or specific NAND-flash memory cells.  Before a storage unit (HDD or SSD) can be recognized by Windows, a file system must be prepared for the volume.  This takes place when the volume is formatted and in most cases is set with a 4KB cluster size.  The cluster size is the smallest unit of space that can be allocated.  Too large of a cluster size results in wasted space due to over allocation for the actual data needed.  Too small of a cluster size causes many file extents or fragments.  After formatting is complete and when a volume is first written to, most all of the free space is in just one or two very large sections.  Over the course of time as files of various sizes are written, modified, re-written, copied, and deleted, the size of individual sections of free space as seen from the NTFS logical file system point of view becomes smaller and smaller.  I have seen both HDD and SSD storage devices with over 3 million free space extents.  Since Windows lacks file size intelligence when writing a file, it never chooses the best allocation at the logical layer, only the next available – even if the next available is 4KB. That means 128K worth of data could wind up with 32 extents or fragments, each being 4KB in size. Therefore SSDs do fragment at the logical Windows NTFS file system level.  This happens not as a function of the storage media, but of the design of the file system.

Let’s examine how this impacts performance.  Each extent of a file requires its own separate I/O request. In the example above, that means 32 I/O operations for a file that could have taken a single I/O if Windows was smarter about managing free space and finding the best logical clusters instead of the next available. Since I/O takes a measurable amount of time to complete, the issue we’re talking about here related to SSDs has to do with an I/O overhead issue.

Even with no moving parts and multi-channel I/O capability, the more I/O requests needed to complete a given workload, the longer it is going to take your SSD to access the data.  This performance loss occurs on initial file creation and carries forward with each subsequent read of the same data.  But wait… the performance loss doesn’t stop there.  Once data is written to a memory cell on an SSD and later the file space is marked for deletion, it must first be erased before new data can be written to that memory cell.  This is a rather time consuming process and individual memory cells cannot be individually erased, but instead a group of adjacent memory cells (referred to as a page) are processed together.  Unfortunately, some of those memory cells may still contain valuable data and this information must first be copied to a different set of memory cells before the memory cell page (group of memory cells) can be erased and made ready to accept the new data.  This is known as Write Amplification.  This is one of the reasons why writes are so much slower than reads on an SSD.  Another unique problem associated with SSDs is that each memory cell has a limited number of times that a memory cell can be written to before that memory cell is no longer usable.  When too many memory cells are considered invalid the whole unit becomes unusable.  While TRIM, wear leveling technologies, and garbage collection routines have been developed to help with this behavior, they are not able to run in real-time and therefore are only playing catch-up instead of being focused on the kind of preventative measures that are needed the most.  In fact, these advanced technologies offered by SSD manufacturers (and within Windows) do not prevent or reverse the effects of file and free space fragmentation at the NTFS file system level.

The only way to eliminate this surplus of small, tiny writes and reads that (1) chew up performance and (2) shorten lifespan from all the wear and tear is by taking a preventative approach that makes Windows “smarter” about how it writes files and manages free space, so more payload is delivered with every I/O operation. That’s exactly why more users run Condusiv’s Diskeeper® (for physical servers and workstations) or V-locity® (for virtual servers) on systems with SSD storage. For anyone who questions how much value this approach adds to their systems, the easiest way to find out is by downloading a free 30-day trial and watch the “time saved” dashboard for yourself. Since the fastest I/O is the one you don’t have to write, Condusiv software understands exactly how much time is saved by eliminating multiple, fractured writes with fewer, larger contiguous writes. It even has an additional feature to cache reads from idle, available DRAM (15X faster than SSD), which further offloads I/O bandwidth to SSD storage. Especially for businesses with many users accessing a multitude of applications across hundreds or thousands of servers, the time savings are enormous.


ATTO Benchmark Results with and without Diskeeper 16 running on a 120GB Samsung SSD Pro 840. The read data caching shows a 10X improvement in read performance.

First-ever “Time Saved” Dashboard = Holy Grail for ROI

by Brian Morin 2. November 2016 10:03

If you’ve ever wondered about the exact business value that Condusiv® I/O reduction software provides to your systems, the latest “time saved” reporting does exactly that.

Prior to V-locity® v6.2 for virtual servers and Diskeeper® 16 for physical servers and endpoints, customers would conduct expansive before/after tests to extract the intrinsic performance value, but struggled to extract the ongoing business benefit over time. This has been especially true during annual maintenance renewal cycles when key stakeholders need to be “re-sold” to allocate budget for ongoing maintenance, or push new licenses to new servers.

The number one request from customers has been to better understand the ongoing business benefit of I/O reduction in terms that are easily relatable to senior management and makes justifying the ROI painless. This “holy grail” search on part of our engineering team has led to the industry’s first-ever “time saved” dashboard for an I/O optimization software platform.

When Condusiv software proactively eliminates the surplus of small, fractured writes and reads and ensures more “payload” with every I/O operation, the net effect is fewer write and read operations for any given workload, which saves time. When Condusiv software caches hot reads within idle, available DRAM, the net effect is fewer reads traversing the full stack down to storage and back, which saves time.

In terms of benefits, the new dashboard shows:

    1. How many write I/Os are eliminated by ensuring large, clean, contiguous writes from Windows

    2. How many read I/Os are cached from idle DRAM

    3. What percentage of write and read traffic is offloaded from underlying SSD or HDD storage

    4. Most importantly – the dashboard relates I/O reduction to the business benefit of … “time saved”

This reporting approach makes the software fully transparent on the type of benefit being delivered to any individual system or groups of systems. Since the software itself sits within the Windows operating system, it is aware of latency to storage and understands just how much time is saved by serving an I/O from DRAM instead of the underlying SSD or HDD. And, most importantly, since the fastest I/O is the one you don’t have to write, Condusiv software understands how much time is saved by eliminating multiple small, fractured writes with fewer, larger contiguous writes.  

Have you ever wondered how much time V-locity will save a VDI deployment? Or an application supported by all-flash? Or a Hyperconverged environment? Rather than wonder, just install a 30-day version of the software and monitor the “time saved” dashboard to find out. Benefits are fully transparent and easily quantified.

Have you ever needed to justify Diskeeper’s endpoint solution across a fleet of corporate laptops with SSDs? Now you can see the “time saved” on individual systems or all systems and quantify the cost of labor against the number of hours that Diskeeper saved in I/O time across any time period. The “no brainer” benefit will be immediately obvious.

Customers will be pleasantly surprised to find out the latest dashboard doesn’t just show granular benefits but also granular performance metrics and other important information to assist with memory tuning. See the avg., min, and max of idle memory used for cache over any time period (even by the hour) to make quick assessments on which systems could use more memory to take better advantage of the caching engine for greater application performance. Customers have found if they can maintain at least 2GB used for cache, that's where they begin to get into the sweet spot of what the product can do. If even more can be maintained to establish a tier-0 cache strategy, performance rises even further. Systems with at least 4GB idle for cache will invariably serve 60% of reads or more. 



       Lou Goodreau, IT Manager, New England Fishery

      “32% of my write traffic has been eliminated and 64% of my read traffic has been cached within idle memory. This saved over 20 hours in I/O time after 24 days of testing!”

       David Bruce, Managing Partner, David Bruce & Associates

                                    “Over 50% of my reads are now served from DRAM and over 30% of write traffic has

                                   been eliminated by ensuring large, contiguous writes. Now everything is more



New! Diskeeper 16 Guarantees “Faster than New” Performance for Physical Servers and PCs

by Brian Morin 26. September 2016 09:56

The world’s most popular defragmentation software for physical servers and PCs makes “defrag” a thing of the past and delivers “faster than new” performance by dynamically caching hot reads with idle DRAM.  As a result, Diskeeper® 16 guarantees to solve the toughest application performance issues on physical servers like MS-SQL and guarantees to fix sluggish PCs with faster than new performance or your money back for 90 days – no questions asked.

The market is still catching up to the fact that Diskeeper’s newest patented engine no longer “defrags” but rather proactively eliminates fragmentation with large, sequential writes from Windows to underlying HDDs, SSDs, and SAN storage systems. This eliminates the “death by a thousand cuts” scenario of small, tiny writes and reads that inflates I/Os per second, robs throughput, and shortens the lifespan of HDDs and SSDs alike. However, the biggest new announcement has to do with the addition of DRAM caching – putting idle DRAM to good use by serving hot reads without memory contention or resource starvation.

“Diskeeper 16 with DRAM caching served over 50% of my reads from DRAM and eliminated over 30% of write traffic by preventing fragmentation. Now everything is more responsive!” - David Bruce, Managing Partner, David Bruce & Associates

“Diskeeper 16 with DRAM caching doubled our throughput, so we could backup in half the time.  Our Dell Rapid Recovery backup server is running smoother than ever.” - Curtis Jackson, Network Admin, School City of Hammond

“WOW! Watch it go! I have 44GB of memory in the physical server and Diskeeper is using around 20GB of it to cache!! I can’t imagine having a server without it! Diskeeper 16 is a vastly improved version of Diskeeper!” - Andy Vabulas, Vabulas Enterprises

“Our Symantec app running on a physical server has been notoriously slow for as long as I can remember, but since adding Diskeeper 16 it has improved significantly.” Josh Currier, Network Infrastructure Manager, Munters Corporation

 “With Diskeeper 16 I can tell my workstation is more responsive with no lag or any type of hesitation. Truly SMART Technology.” - William Krasulak, Systems/Network Admin, Nacci Printing, Inc.

“Our most I/O intensive applications on physical servers needed some help, so we installed Diskeeper 16 with DRAM caching and were amazed by the performance boost!” - Victor Grandmaiter, IT Director, Fort Bend Central Appraisal District

“Diskeeper eliminated 32% of my write traffic by preventing fragmentation and cached 64% of my read traffic within idle memory. This saved my workstation over 20 hours in I/O time after 24 days of testing!” - Lou Goodreau, IT Manager, New England Fishery

“Installed Diskeeper 16 on our worst performing physical servers running ERP with a SQL database and saw an immediate 50% boost!" - Hamid Bouhassoune, Systems Engineer, Global Skincare Company

A top New York clothing brand tried Diskeeper 16 with DRAM caching on their physical servers and saw backup times with Veeam and Backup Exec drop by more than half!

Before Diskeeper Install:

8/7, 10GB, 14MB/s, 1:38

8/8, 11 GB, 13MB/s, 1:54

After Diskeeper Install:

          8/12, 13GB, 21MB/s, 1:30

        8/13, 14GB, 30MB/s, 0:58

        8/14, 13GB, 33MB/s, 0:55

        8/15, 11GB, 36MB/s, 0:44

        8/19, 17GB, 30MB/s, 1:06


A Large Illinois Non-Profit tested Diskeeper 16 with DRAM caching on Windows 2012R2 physical servers running CRM and accounting software with a MS-SQL backend. Note – these improvements were almost exclusively from Diskeeper 16’s write optimization engine since idle memory was not available to initiate the new caching engine.


See a screenshot of the new dashboard reporting that shows “time saved” from using Diskeeper 16 to eliminate fragmentation and cache reads with idle DRAM.


Try Diskeeper 16 with DRAM caching for 30-days -> 




Teaser: Coming Soon! Intelligent Caching and Fragmentation Prevention = IO Heaven

by Brian Morin 19. September 2016 04:53

Sometimes the performance of physical servers, PCs and laptops slows to a crawl. No matter what you do, it takes half an eternity to open some files. It’s tied into the architecture of the Windows operating system. The OS becomes progressively slower the longer it is used and the more it is burdened with added software and large volumes of data.

In the old days, the solution was easy – defragment the hard drive. However, many production servers can’t be taken offline to defragment, and many laptops only have solid state drives (SSDs) that don’t submit to defragmentation. So is there any hope?

Condusiv has solved these dilemmas in the soon to be released version of Diskeeper®. With over 100 million licenses sold, Diskeeper has been the undisputed leader for decades when it comes to keeping Windows systems fragment free and performing well. And with Diskeeper 16 coming out soon, feedback from Beta testers is that it goes way beyond a mere incremental release with a few added frills, bells and whistles. Instead, the consensus among them is that it is a “next generation” release that goes well beyond just keeping Windows systems running like new but actually boosts performance faster than new.

How is this being achieved? The company had been perfecting two technologies within its portfolio and is now bringing them together – fragmentation prevention and DRAM caching.

On the one side, the idea is that you prevent fragmentation before data is written to a production server. This is a lifesaver for IT administrators who need to immediately boost the performance of critical applications like MS-SQL running on physical servers. Diskeeper keeps systems running optimally with its patented fragmentation prevention engine that ensures large, clean, contiguous writes from Windows, eliminating the small, tiny writes that rob performance with “death by a thousand cuts” by inflating IOPS and stealing throughput.

But that’s only the half of it.  A little known fact about Condusiv is that it is also a world leader in caching. In addition to their incredible work on Diskeeper, the Condusiv development team has evolved a unique DRAM caching approach that has been implemented via OEM partners for several years. So popular has this technology become that the company has sold over 5 million caching licenses that have been tied to ultrabooks but now is being made available commercially.

Soon to be released Diskeeper 16’s DRAM caching electrifies performance:

·         Benchmark tests show MS-SQL workload performance boosts of up to 6X

·         An average of 40% latency reduction across hundreds of servers

·         No hint of memory contention or resource starvation

·         Fleets of laptops suddenly running like a dream

·         PCMark MS Office productivity tests show an increase of 73% on Windows 10 machines

·         Huge leaps in SSD write speed and extended SSD lifespan

·         Solves even the worst performing physical servers or Windows PCs backed by a money-back guarantee.

Could it be, then, that there really is hope to get PCs and physicals servers to be running faster than new?


You’ll have to wait until Diskeeper 16 is unveiled to hear the full story. 

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