Condusiv Technologies Blog

Condusiv Technologies Blog

Blogging @Condusiv

The Condusiv blog shares insight into the issues surrounding system and application performance—and how I/O optimization software is breaking new ground in solving those issues.

Which Processes are Using All of My System Resources?

by Gary Quan 17. July 2018 05:50

Over time as more files and applications are added to your system, you notice that performance has degraded, and you want to find out what is causing it. A good starting point is to see how the system resources are being used and which processes and/or files are using them.

Both Diskeeper® and SSDkeeper® contain a lesser known feature to assist you on this. It is called the System Monitoring Report which can show you how the CPU and I/O resources are being utilized, then digging down a bit deeper, which processes or files are using them.

Under Reports on the Main Menu, the System Monitoring Report provides you with data on the system’s CPU usage and I/O Activity.

 

The CPU Usage report takes the average CPU usage from the past 7 days, then provides a graph of the hourly usage on an average day. You can then see at which times the CPU resources are being hit the most and by how much.

Digging down some more, you can then see which processes utilized the most CPU resources.

 

The Disk I/O Activity report takes the average disk I/O activity from the past 7 days, then provides a graph of the hourly activity on an average day. You can then determine at which times the I/O activity is the highest.

Digging down some more, you can then see which processes utilized the I/O resources the most, plus what processes are causing the most split (extra) I/Os.

 

You can also see which file types have the highest I/O utilization as well as those causing the most split (extra) I/Os.  This can help indicate what files and related processes are causing this type of extra I/O activity.

 

So, if you are trying to see how your system is being used, maybe for performance issues, this report gives you a quick and easy look on how the CPU and Disk I/O resources are being used on your system and what processes and file types are using them. This along with some other Microsoft Utilities, like Task Manager and Performance Monitor can help you tune your system for optimum performance.

Dashboard Analytics 13 Metrics and Why They Matter

by Rick Cadruvi, Chief Architect 11. July 2018 09:12

 

Our latest V-locity®, Diskeeper® and SSDkeeper® products include a built-in dashboard that reports the benefits our software is providing.  There are tabs in the dashboard that allow users to view very granular data that can help them assess the impact of our software.  In the dashboard Analytics tab we display hourly data for 13 key metrics.  This document describes what those metrics are and why we chose them as key to understanding your storage performance, which directly translates to your application performance.

To start with, let’s spend a moment  trying to understand why 24-hour graphs matter.  When you, and/or your users really notice bottlenecks is generally during peak usage periods.  While some servers are truly at peak usage 24x7,  most systems, including servers, have peak I/O periods.  These almost always follow peak user activity.  

Sometimes there will be spikes also in the overnight hours when you are doing backups, virus scans, large report/data maintenance jobs, etc.  While these may not be your major concern, some of our customers find that these overlap their daytime production and therefore can easily be THE major source of concern.  For some people, making these happen before the deluge of daytime work starts, is the single biggest factor they deal with.

Regardless of what causes the peaks, it is at those peak moments when performance matters most.  When little is happening, performance rarely matters.  When a lot is happening, it is key.  The 24-hour graphs allow you to visually see the times when performance matters to you.  You can also match metrics during specific hours to see where the bottlenecks are and what technologies of ours are most effective during those hours. 

Let’s move on to the actual metrics.

 

Total I/Os Eliminated

 

Total I/Os eliminated measures the number of I/Os that would have had to go through to storage if our technologies were not eliminating them before they ever got sent to storage.  We eliminate I/Os in one of two ways.  First, via our patented IntelliMemory® technology, we satisfy I/Os from memory without the request ever going out to the storage device.  Second, several of our other technologies, such as IntelliWrite® cause the data to be stored more efficiently and densely so that when data is requested, it takes less I/Os to get the same amount of data as would otherwise be required.  The net effect is that your storage subsystems see less actual I/Os sent to them because we eliminated the need for those extra I/Os.  That allows those I/Os that do go to storage to finish faster because they aren’t waiting on the eliminated I/Os to complete.

 

IOPS

IOPS stands for I/Os Per Second.  It is the number of I/OS that you are actually requesting.  During the times with the most activity, I/Os eliminated actually causes this number to be much higher than would be possible with just your storage subsystem.  It is also a measure of the total amount of work your applications/systems are able to accomplish.

 

Data from Cache (GB)

Data from cache tells you how much of that total throughput was satisfied directly from cache.  This can be deceiving.  Our caching algorithms are aimed at eliminating a lot of small noisy I/Os that jam up the storage subsystem works.  By not having to process those, the data freeway is wide open.  This is like a freeway with accidents.  Even though the cars have moved to the side, the traffic slows dramatically.  Our cache is like accident avoidance.  It may be just a subset of the total throughput, but you process a LOT more data because you aren’t waiting for those noisy, necessary I/Os that hold your applications/systems back.

Throughput (GB Total)

Throughput is the total amount of data you process and is measured in GigaBytes.  Think of this like a freight train.  The more railcars, the more total freight being shipped.  The higher the throughput, the more work your system is doing.

 

Throughput (MB/Sec)

Throughput is a measure of the total volume of data flowing to/from your storage subsystem.  This metric measures throughput in MegaBytes per second kind of like your speedometer versus your odometer.

I/O Time Saved (seconds)

The I/O Time Saved metric tells you how much time you didn’t have to wait for I/Os to complete because of the physical I/Os we eliminated from going to storage.  This can be extremely important during your busiest times.  Because I/O requests overlap across multiple processes and threads, this time can actually be greater than elapsed clock time.  And what that means to you is that the total amount of work that gets done can actually experience a multiplier effect because systems and applications tend to multitask.  It’s like having 10 people working on sub-tasks at the same time.  The projects finish much faster than if 1 person had to do all the tasks for the project by themselves.  By allowing pieces to be done by different people and then just plugging them altogether you get more done faster.  This metric measures that effect.

 

I/O Response Time

I/O Response time is sometimes referred to as Latency.  It is how long it takes for I/Os to complete.  This is generally measured in milliseconds.  The lower the number, the better the performance.

Read/Write %

Read/Write % is the percentage of Reads to Writes.  If it is at 75%, 3 out of every 4 I/Os are Reads to each Write.  If it were 25%, then it would signify that there are 3 Writes per each Read.

 

Read I/Os Eliminated

This metric tells you how many Read I/Os we eliminated.  If your Read to Write ratio is very high, this may be one of the most important metrics for you.  However, remember that eliminating Writes means that Reads that do go to storage do NOT have to wait for those writes we eliminated to complete.  That means they finish faster.  Of course, the same is true that Reads eliminated improves overall Read performance.

% Read I/Os Eliminated

 

% Read I/Os Eliminated tells you what percentage of your overall Reads were eliminated from having to be processed at all by your storage subsystem.

 

Write I/Os Eliminated

This metric tells you how many Write I/Os we eliminated.  This is due to our technologies that improve the efficiency and density of data being stored by the Windows NTFS file system.

% Write I/Os Eliminated 

 

% Write I/Os Eliminated tells you what percentage of your overall Writes were eliminated from having to be processed at all by your storage subsystem.

Fragments Prevented and Eliminated

Fragments Prevented and Eliminated gives you an idea of how we are causing data to be stored more efficiently and dense, thus allowing Windows to process the same amount of data with far fewer actual I/Os.

If you have our latest versions of V-locity, Diskeeper or SSDkeeper installed, you can open the Dashboard now and select the Analytics tab and see all of these metrics.

If you don’t have the latest version installed and you have a current maintenance agreement, login to your online account to download and install the software.

Not a customer yet and want to checkout these dashboard metrics, download a free trial at www.condusiv.com/try.

How to Improve Application Performance by Decreasing Disk Latency like an IT Engineer

by Spencer Allingham 13. June 2018 06:49

You might be responsible for a busy SQL server, for example, or a Web Server; perhaps a busy file and print server, the Finance Department's systems, documentation management, CRM, BI, or something else entirely.

Now, think about WHY these are the workloads that you care about the most?

 

Were YOU responsible for installing the application running the workload for your company? Is the workload being run business critical, or considered TOO BIG TO FAIL?

Or is it simply because users, or even worse, customers, complain about performance?

 

If the last question made you wince, because you know that YOU are responsible for some of the workloads running in your organisation that would benefit from additional performance, please read on. This article is just for you, even if you don't consider yourself a "Techie".

Before we get started, you should know that there are many variables that can affect the performance of the applications that you care about the most. The slowest, most restrictive of these is referred to as the "Bottleneck". Think of water being poured from a bottle. The water can only flow as fast as the neck of the bottle, the 'slowest' part of the bottle.

Don't worry though, in a computer the bottleneck will pretty much always fit into one of the following categories:

•           CPU

•           DISK

•           MEMORY

•           NETWORK

The good news is that if you're running Windows, it is usually very easy to find out which one the bottleneck is in, and here is how to do it (like an IT Engineer):

 •          Open Resource Monitor by clicking the Start menu, typing "resource monitor", and pressing Enter. Microsoft includes this as part of the Windows operating system and it is already installed.

 •          Do you see the graphs in the right-hand pane? When your computer is running at peak load, or users are complaining about performance, which of the graphs are 'maxing out'?

This is a great indicator of where your workload's bottleneck is to be found.         

 

SO, now you have identified the slowest part of your 'compute environment' (continue reading for more details), what can you do to improve it?

The traditional approach to solving computer performance issues has been to throw hardware at the solution. This could be treating yourself to a new laptop, or putting more RAM into your workstation, or on the more extreme end, buying new servers or expensive storage solutions.

BUT, how do you know when it is appropriate to spend money on new or additional hardware, and when it isn't. Well the answer is; 'when you can get the performance that you need', with the existing hardware infrastructure that you have already bought and paid for. You wouldn't replace your car, just because it needed a service, would you?

Let's take disk speed as an example.  Let’s take a look at the response time column in Resource Monitor. Make sure you open the monitor to full screen or large enough to see the data.  Then open the Disk Activity section so you can see the Response Time column.  Do it now on the computer you're using to read this. (You didn't close Resource Monitor yet, did you?) This is showing the Disk Response Time, or put another way, how long is the storage taking to read and write data? Of course, slower disk speed = slower performance, but what is considered good disk speed and bad?

To answer that question, I will refer to a great blog post by Scott Lowe, that you can read here...

https://www.techrepublic.com/blog/the-enterprise-cloud/use-resource-monitor-to-monitor-storage-performance/

In it, the author perfectly describes what to expect from faster and slower Disk Response Times:

"Response Time (ms). Disk response time in milliseconds. For this metric, a lower number is definitely better; in general, anything less than 10 ms is considered good performance. If you occasionally go beyond 10 ms, you should be okay, but if the system is consistently waiting more than 20 ms for response from the storage, then you may have a problem that needs attention, and it's likely that users will notice performance degradation. At 50 ms and greater, the problem is serious."

Hopefully when you checked on your computer, the Disk Response Time is below 20 milliseconds. BUT, what about those other workloads that you were thinking about earlier. What's the Disk Response Times on that busy SQL server, the CRM or BI platform, or those Windows servers that the users complain about?

If the Disk Response Times are often higher than 20 milliseconds, and you need to improve the performance, then it's choice time and there are basically two options:

           In my opinion as an IT Engineer, the most sensible option is to use storage workload reduction software like Diskeeper for physical Windows computers, or V-locity for virtualised Windows computers. These will reduce Disk Storage Times by allowing a good percentage of the data that your applications need to read, to come from a RAM cache, rather than slower disk storage. This works because RAM is much faster than the media in your disk storage. Best of all, the only thing you need to do to try it, is download a free copy of the 30 day trial. You don't even have to reboot the computer; just check and see if it is able to bring the Disk Response Times down for the workloads that you care about the most.

           If you have tried the Diskeeper or V-locity software, and you STILL need faster disk access, then, I'm afraid, it's time to start getting quotations for new hardware. It does make sense though, to take a couple of minutes to install Diskeeper or V-locity first, to see if this step can be avoided. The software solution to remove storage inefficiencies is typically a much more cost-effective solution than having to buy hardware!

Visit www.condusiv.com/try to download Diskeeper and V-locity now, for your free trial.

 

Condusiv Launches SSDkeeper Software that Guarantees “Faster than New” Performance for PCs and Physical Servers and Extends Longevity of SSDs

by Brian Morin 17. January 2017 09:30

The company that sold over 100 Million Diskeeper® licenses for hard disk drive systems, now releases SSDkeeper™ to keep solid-state drive systems running longer while performing “faster than new.”

Every Windows PC or physical server fitted with a solid-state drive (SSD) suffers from very small, fractured writes and reads, which dampen optimal SSD performance and ultimately erodes the longevity of SSDs from write amplification issues. SSDkeeper’s patented software ensures large, clean contiguous writes and reads for more payload with every I/O operation, reduced Program/Erase (P/E) cycles that shorten SSD longevity, and boosts performance even further with its ability to cache hot reads within idle, available DRAM.

Solid-state drives can only handle a number of finite writes before failing. Every write kicks off P/E cycles that shorten SSD lifespan otherwise known as write amplification. By reducing the number of writes required for any given file or workload, SSDkeeper significantly boosts write performance speed while also reducing the number of P/E cycles that would have otherwise been executed. This enables individuals and organizations to reclaim the write speed of their SSD drives while ensuring the longest life possible.

Patented Write Optimization

SSDkeeper’s patented write optimization engine (IntelliWrite®) prevents excessively small, fragmented writes and reads that rob the performance and endurance of SSDs. SSDkeeper ensures large, clean contiguous writes from Windows, so maximum payload is carried with every I/O operation. By eliminating the “death by a thousand cuts” scenario of many, tiny writes and reads that slow system performance, the lifespan of an SSD is also extended due to reduction in write amplification issues that plague all SSD devices.

Patented Read Optimization

SSDkeeper electrifies Windows system performance further with an additional patented feature - dynamic memory caching (IntelliMemory®). By automatically using idle, available DRAM to serve hot reads, data is served from memory which is 12-15X faster than SSD and further reduces wear to the SSD device. The real genius in SSDkeeper’s DRAM caching engine is that nothing has to be allocated for cache. All caching occurs automatically. SSDkeeper dynamically uses only the memory that is available at any given moment and throttles according to the need of the application, so there is never an issue of resource contention or memory starvation. If a system is ever memory constrained at any point, SSDkeeper's caching engine will back off entirely. However, systems with just 4GB of available DRAM commonly serve 50% of read traffic. It doesn't take much available memory to have a big impact on performance.

Enhanced Reporting

If you ever wanted to know how much Windows inefficiencies were robbing system performance, SSDkeeper tracks time saved due to elimination of small, fragmented writes and time saved from every read request that is served from DRAM instead of being served from the underlying SSD. Users can leverage SSDkeeper’s built-in dashboard to see what percentage of all write requests are reduced by sequentializing otherwise small, fractured writes and what percentage of all read requests are cached from idle, available DRAM.

SSDkeeper is a lightweight file system driver that runs invisibly in the background with near-zero intrusion on system resources. All optimizations occur automatically in real-time.

While SSDkeeper provides the same core patented functionality and features as the latest Diskeeper® 16 for hard disk drives (minus defragmentation functions for hard disk drives only), the benefit to a solid-state drive is different than to a hard disk drive. Hard disk drives do not suffer from write amplification that reduces longevity. By eliminating excessively small writes, IntelliWrite goes beyond improved write performance but extends endurance as well.

Available in Professional and Server Editions

>SSDkeeper Professional for Windows PCs with SSD drives greatly enhances the performance of corporate laptops and desktops.

>SSDkeeper Server speeds physical server system performance of the most I/O intensive applications such as MS-SQL Server by 2X to 10X depending on the amount of idle, unused memory.  

>Options include Diskeeper Administrator management console to automate network deployment and management across hundreds or thousands of PCs or servers.  

>A free 30-day software trial download is available at http://www.condusiv.com/evaluation-software/

>Now available for purchase on our online store:  http://www.condusiv.com/purchase/SSDKeeper/

 

Everything You Need to Know about SSDs and Fragmentation in 5 Minutes

by Howard Butler 17. November 2016 05:42

When reading articles, blogs, and forums posted by well-respected (or at least well intentioned people) on the subject of fragmentation and SSDs, many make statements about how (1) SSDs don’t fragment, or (2) there’s no moving parts, so no problem, or (3) an SSD is so fast, why bother? We all know and agree SSDs shouldn’t be “defragmented” since that shortens lifespan, so is there a problem after all?

The truth of the matter is that applications running on Windows do not talk directly to the storage device.  Data is referenced as an abstracted layer of logical clusters rather than physical track/sectors or specific NAND-flash memory cells.  Before a storage unit (HDD or SSD) can be recognized by Windows, a file system must be prepared for the volume.  This takes place when the volume is formatted and in most cases is set with a 4KB cluster size.  The cluster size is the smallest unit of space that can be allocated.  Too large of a cluster size results in wasted space due to over allocation for the actual data needed.  Too small of a cluster size causes many file extents or fragments.  After formatting is complete and when a volume is first written to, most all of the free space is in just one or two very large sections.  Over the course of time as files of various sizes are written, modified, re-written, copied, and deleted, the size of individual sections of free space as seen from the NTFS logical file system point of view becomes smaller and smaller.  I have seen both HDD and SSD storage devices with over 3 million free space extents.  Since Windows lacks file size intelligence when writing a file, it never chooses the best allocation at the logical layer, only the next available – even if the next available is 4KB. That means 128K worth of data could wind up with 32 extents or fragments, each being 4KB in size. Therefore SSDs do fragment at the logical Windows NTFS file system level.  This happens not as a function of the storage media, but of the design of the file system.

Let’s examine how this impacts performance.  Each extent of a file requires its own separate I/O request. In the example above, that means 32 I/O operations for a file that could have taken a single I/O if Windows was smarter about managing free space and finding the best logical clusters instead of the next available. Since I/O takes a measurable amount of time to complete, the issue we’re talking about here related to SSDs has to do with an I/O overhead issue.

Even with no moving parts and multi-channel I/O capability, the more I/O requests needed to complete a given workload, the longer it is going to take your SSD to access the data.  This performance loss occurs on initial file creation and carries forward with each subsequent read of the same data.  But wait… the performance loss doesn’t stop there.  Once data is written to a memory cell on an SSD and later the file space is marked for deletion, it must first be erased before new data can be written to that memory cell.  This is a rather time consuming process and individual memory cells cannot be individually erased, but instead a group of adjacent memory cells (referred to as a page) are processed together.  Unfortunately, some of those memory cells may still contain valuable data and this information must first be copied to a different set of memory cells before the memory cell page (group of memory cells) can be erased and made ready to accept the new data.  This is known as Write Amplification.  This is one of the reasons why writes are so much slower than reads on an SSD.  Another unique problem associated with SSDs is that each memory cell has a limited number of times that a memory cell can be written to before that memory cell is no longer usable.  When too many memory cells are considered invalid the whole unit becomes unusable.  While TRIM, wear leveling technologies, and garbage collection routines have been developed to help with this behavior, they are not able to run in real-time and therefore are only playing catch-up instead of being focused on the kind of preventative measures that are needed the most.  In fact, these advanced technologies offered by SSD manufacturers (and within Windows) do not prevent or reverse the effects of file and free space fragmentation at the NTFS file system level.

The only way to eliminate this surplus of small, tiny writes and reads that (1) chew up performance and (2) shorten lifespan from all the wear and tear is by taking a preventative approach that makes Windows “smarter” about how it writes files and manages free space, so more payload is delivered with every I/O operation. That’s exactly why more users run Condusiv’s Diskeeper® (for physical servers and workstations) or V-locity® (for virtual servers) on systems with SSD storage. For anyone who questions how much value this approach adds to their systems, the easiest way to find out is by downloading a free 30-day trial and watch the “time saved” dashboard for yourself. Since the fastest I/O is the one you don’t have to write, Condusiv software understands exactly how much time is saved by eliminating multiple, fractured writes with fewer, larger contiguous writes. It even has an additional feature to cache reads from idle, available DRAM (15X faster than SSD), which further offloads I/O bandwidth to SSD storage. Especially for businesses with many users accessing a multitude of applications across hundreds or thousands of servers, the time savings are enormous.

 

ATTO Benchmark Results with and without Diskeeper 16 running on a 120GB Samsung SSD Pro 840. The read data caching shows a 10X improvement in read performance.

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